A theory of real physical space that is treated as the tessel-lattice of densely packed topological balls and notions of mass and charge, which are respectively the manifestations of volumetric and surface fractal deformations of a cell of the tessel-lattice, allow us to introduce the notion of the photon as follows [1,2]. An elementary canonical particle, for instance the electron, is exemplified by a mass and charge. The mass and the charge in their turn deform the surrounding tessel-lattice, such that a deformation coat is formed around the particulate cell (the same as it is the case of a polaron coat round the electron in a polar crystal or a solvate shell round an ion in a liquid).

The motion of a particle in the tessel-lattice obeys submicroscopic mechanics; a moving particle generates elementary excitations that migrate together with the particle. In the case of a charged particle such excitations are endowed both with volumetric and surface fractal deformations. The excitations migrate by a relay mechanism hopping from cell to cell. A volumetric deformation of a cell is associated with a (fragment) of mass and the surface deformation is associated with a fragment of the electricity, i.e. polarization. Hence the moving charged particle is surrounded by a cloud of excitations that carry elements of mass and electricity. The availability of electric polarization on these excitations enable us to identify them with photons. Hence, the photon is the same inerton but which has a polarised surface.

The motion of a charged canonical particle can be stable only when the particle and its photon cloud periodically change (due to the interaction with the tessel-lattice) both their volumetric and surface states: the volumetric state oscillates between a local deformation and the tension and the surface state oscillates between pure needles and the surface tension (when needles are bended to the surface). Therefore one type of deformation is periodically transformed to the other type. Since all this occurs in real space we can clearly draw the appropriate picture: the mass (local deformation) of the photon oscillates periodically transforming to the state that can be described as the tension of the cell. The geometry of the surface of the photon oscillates between the state of normal needles (electric polarization) and the state of combed needles (magnetic polarization).

Owing to certain non-adiabatic processes free photons are released from the photon cloud that surrounds the charged particle. A free photon migrates in the tessel-lattice by hopping from cell to cell. During such a motion the state of its surface periodically changes between the state of normal needles (electric polarization) and the state of combed needles (magnetic polarization). The photon in each odd section $\lambda /2$ of its path looses the electric polarization which is going to zero and acquires the magnetic polarization; in even sections $\lambda /2$ of the photon's path it looses the magnetic polarization but restores its electric polarization. Thus the wavelength $\lambda$ of the photon represents a spatial period in which the polarization of the photon is transformed from pure electric to pure magnetic. Having $\lambda$ and knowing the velocity $c$ of a free photon we can calculate the photon frequency, which features the frequency of transformation of magnetic and electric polarizations: $\nu = c / \lambda$.

The size of the photon. Since we compare the size of an elementary cell of the tessel-lattice with the Planck's fundamental length $l_{\rm f} =\sqrt{\hbar G/c^3} \sim 10^{-35}$ m, we shall recognize this scale as an actual size of the photon. However, high energy physics extrapolates the unification of three types of interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong) on the scale $10^{-30}$ m. This would mean that although the core of the photon occupies only one cell, a certain fluctuation in the tessel-lattice may reach up to the scale $10^{-30}$ m.

An instantaneous photo of the photon: it is a cell of the tessel-lattice whose upper part of the surface is covered by needles that stick out of the cell and the lower part of the surface is covered by needles that stick inside of the cell.


Polarization of the photon. Needles are periodically combed which physically means the appearance of the magnetic field in the present point. If needles are combed towards the direction of motion of the photon, the photon can be called right-polarised. If needles are combed in the reverse direction of the motion of the photon, the photon can be called left-polarised.


[1] V. Krasnoholovets, On the notion of the photon, Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie 27, no. 1, pp. 93-100 (2002) (also

[2] V. Krasnoholovets, On the nature of the electric charge, Hadronic Journal Supplement 18, no. 4, pp. 425-456 (2003) (also

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